Officially the Republic of Turkey, is largely located in Western Asia and a smaller portion in Southern Europe, with its borders connecting to eight countries: Syria, Armenia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Azerbaijani, Iran, Iraq and Greece! Having Black Sea to the North, the Mediterranean Sea to the South and the Aegean Sea to the West, makes Turkey a place of significant geostrategic importance! Moreover the famous Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara and the Dardanelles, form the Turkish straits. A beautiful country with amazing history with a diverse and rich cultural heritage…


The name Turkey is derived from Middle Latin Turchia the “land of the Turks”, historically referring to an entirely different territory of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, which fell under the control of Turkish people in the early medieval period. The country’s official language is Turkish, spoken by 85% of the total population (68 million). According to the World Factbook, 70–75% of the population are ethnic Turks, while Kurds are the largest minority at 18%. Although Istanbul is the most popular and populous city in Turkey, the capital is Ankara, with a population of 4,5 million inhabitants.

This amazing country, offers majestic mountains ideal for all kind of sports, over 8,000 km of coastline with beautiful bays and crystal clean seas, many lakes, valleys and of course dozens of cities with great history and imposing monuments! A place which became a crossroads of peoples, cultures and religions, such as Christianity and Islam. The history of the Turks covers a period of more than 4000 years, starting in Central Asia around 2000 BC. With the passing of time, some of the inhabitants left Central Asia and spread around, establishing many states and empires, such as The Great Hun Empire (3rd Century B.C), the Göktürk Empire (552- 740), the Uygur Empire (741- 840), the Avar Empire (6-9 Century A.D), the Hazar Empire (5-10 Century A.D), the Great Seljuk Empire (1040- 1157), and last the Ottoman Empire (1299–1923). These empires, included various ancient Anatolian civilizations, Aeolian, Dorian and Ionian Greeks, Thracians, Armenians and Persians!

The Ottoman Empire started from the late 13th century, uniting Anatolia and creating a powerful empire. In 1453, the Ottomans captured Constantinople during the reign of Sultan Mehmet II (1451-1481)and the Byzantine Empire fell, marking the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the New Age! The Empire reached its peak during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, in 1520-1566! After the second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 and the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, the Ottoman Empire entered a long period of decline. The weaking and then the actual end of the Ottoman Empire came at the World War I.

The Turkish War of Independence (1919–22), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia, resulted in the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president, until his death after 15 years, in 1938. He introduced a broad range of reforms in the political, social, legal, economic, and cultural spheres that were virtually unparalleled in any other country. The Republic was proclaimed on October 29, 1923, which is now celebrating as a Public Holiday in the country!

Turkey accepts over 40 million foreign visitors every year, ranking it as the 6th most popular tourism destination in the world, with 13 World Heritage Sites, declared by UNESCO. Historic Areas of Istanbul, the Rock Sites of Cappadocia, the archaeological Site of Troy and Hierapolis-Pamukkale are some of them!

The climate in the country varies according to the region. In Istanbul and around the sea of Marmara the climate is moderate. In winter 4 degrees celcius and summer 27 degrees celcius (39 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit). In Western Turkey there is a mild Mediterranean climate with average temperatures of 9 degrees celcius in winter and 29 degrees celcius in summer. On the southern coast the same climate can be found. The climate of the Anatolian Plateau is a steppe climate (there is a great temperature difference between day and night). Rainfall is low and there is more snow. The average temperature is 23 degrees celcius in summer and -2 in winter. The climate in the Black Sea area is wet, warm and humid (summer 23, winter 7). In Eastern Anatolia and South-Eastern Anatolia there is a long hard winter, where year after year snow falls from November until the end of April (the average temperature in winter is -13 and in summer 17 degrees celcius). Because of these variations in climate, the fauna and flora are some of the richest in Europe! The tourist high season starts from May to September. The sun is warm and the skies are generally clear.


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